# Tag: bond

## hybridization – Why can there not be more than one sigma bond in a set of bonds?

The Question : 25 people think this question is useful A question on an exam asked why there is exactly one sigma bond in double and triple covalent bonds. I looked in my text and online after the exam, but couldn’t find an anawer to the question. Why can there not be more than one

## bond – Are the bonding orbitals in methane equivalent – photoelectron spectrum

The Question : 25 people think this question is useful The low energy portion (the part dealing with the $\ce{2s}$ and $\ce{2p}$ electrons) of the photoelectron (PE) spectrum of methane is reproduced below. (image source) The reaction being examined is the following one-photon process $$\ce{CH4 + ~h\nu~ -> [CH4]^{+} + ~e^-}$$ The fact that 2

## bond – Bonding in the phosphate ion

The Question : 24 people think this question is useful I’m looking for an explanation of the bonding in the phosphate (PO43−) ion: (Image courtesy of Wikipedia) Phosphorus (15P) – being the fifteenth element – has fifteen electrons, five valence electrons and the following electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 This being so, by

## thermodynamics – Why do salts such as NaCl dissolve?

The Question : 27 people think this question is useful If we look at solubility of salts in water, we are told that they disassociate, because the positive $\ce{Na}$ ion is attracted to the partially negative oxygen in water and the negative $\ce{Cl}$ is attracted to the partially positive hydrogen. But why does this happen?

## bond – Why do atoms “want” to have a full outer shell?

The Question : 26 people think this question is useful Okay, so I know that this is about filling the orbitals of the atom, and I understand that. What I don’t understand is why? For example, an Oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons spinning around it. Oxygen wants to have 8 valence electrons

## physical chemistry – Why is snow white?

The Question : 28 people think this question is useful I know that this is a rather ambiguous question; but my question is, whenever we take water and freeze it in the freezer, it still tends to stay clear. Since snow is just frozen water, why is it white? Is it due to contents of

## quantum chemistry – Why are covalent bonds directional?

The Question : 28 people think this question is useful It is said that covalent bonds are directional, while ionic bonds are not. Why? Is it because of the orientation/directional properties of the overlapping orbitals? The Question Comments : The Answer 1 33 people think this answer is useful The meaning of covalent bonds being

## bond – Hypervalency and the octet rule

The Question : 33 people think this question is useful I realize that the octet rule is more a suggestion than a rule, and that it applies mainly to non-transition metal compounds. Still, compounds that don’t have an octet, like $\ce{BH3}$, tend to dimerize or disproportionate in order to achieve an octet. In recent SE

## metal – Are metallic/ionic bonds weaker than covalent bonds?

The Question : 32 people think this question is useful In mineralogy class, I was taught that metallic and ionic bonds are weaker than covalent bonds and that’s why quartz and diamond have such a high hardness value. However, in organic chemistry class, I learned that covalent bonds are weaker than metallic and ionic bonds,

## theoretical chemistry – What would follow in the series sigma, pi and delta bonds?

The Question : 32 people think this question is useful I realise, that this question is a stretch, but I was wondering, how would a bonding orbital be called if it was formed from two $f_{x(x^2−3y^2)}$ or $f_{y(3x^2−y^2)}$ orbitals. Have there been any suggestions on this, was it anywhere proposed or discussed? I am not

## covalent compounds – Why is the bond length of CO+ less than that of CO?

The Question : 31 people think this question is useful According to molecular orbital theory, the bond order of $\ce{CO}$ is 3. When $\ce{CO+}$ is formed, the bond order decreases to 2.5, and thus the bond length should increase. However, the bond length of $\ce{CO+}$ is found to be less than $\ce{CO}$. How is that

## bond – Imaginary Bonding Interactions

The Question : 30 people think this question is useful Usually in chemistry, we deal with bonding interactions. That is, if I have the diatomic A-A molecule or A-B molecule, there’s a favorable interaction (i.e., a bond) and a prototypical MO diagram like this: