python – How to input a regex in string.replace?

The Question :

351 people think this question is useful

I need some help on declaring a regex. My inputs are like the following:

this is a paragraph with<[1> in between</[1> and then there are cases ... where the<[99> number ranges from 1-100</[99>. 
and there are many other lines in the txt files
with<[3> such tags </[3>

The required output is:

this is a paragraph with in between and then there are cases ... where the number ranges from 1-100. 
and there are many other lines in the txt files
with such tags

I’ve tried this:

#!/usr/bin/python
import os, sys, re, glob
for infile in glob.glob(os.path.join(os.getcwd(), '*.txt')):
    for line in reader: 
        line2 = line.replace('<[1> ', '')
        line = line2.replace('</[1> ', '')
        line2 = line.replace('<[1>', '')
        line = line2.replace('</[1>', '')

        print line

I’ve also tried this (but it seems like I’m using the wrong regex syntax):

    line2 = line.replace('<[*> ', '')
    line = line2.replace('</[*> ', '')
    line2 = line.replace('<[*>', '')
    line = line2.replace('</[*>', '')

I dont want to hard-code the replace from 1 to 99 . . .

The Question Comments :

The Answer 1

620 people think this answer is useful

This tested snippet should do it:

import re
line = re.sub(r"</?\[\d+>", "", line)

Edit: Here’s a commented version explaining how it works:

line = re.sub(r"""
  (?x) # Use free-spacing mode.
  <    # Match a literal '<'
  /?   # Optionally match a '/'
  \[   # Match a literal '['
  \d+  # Match one or more digits
  >    # Match a literal '>'
  """, "", line)

Regexes are fun! But I would strongly recommend spending an hour or two studying the basics. For starters, you need to learn which characters are special: “metacharacters” which need to be escaped (i.e. with a backslash placed in front – and the rules are different inside and outside character classes.) There is an excellent online tutorial at: www.regular-expressions.info. The time you spend there will pay for itself many times over. Happy regexing!

The Answer 2

40 people think this answer is useful

str.replace() does fixed replacements. Use re.sub() instead.

The Answer 3

24 people think this answer is useful

I would go like this (regex explained in comments):

import re

# If you need to use the regex more than once it is suggested to compile it.
pattern = re.compile(r"</{0,}\[\d+>")

# <\/{0,}\[\d+>
# 
# Match the character “<” literally «<»
# Match the character “/” literally «\/{0,}»
#    Between zero and unlimited times, as many times as possible, giving back as needed (greedy) «{0,}»
# Match the character “[” literally «\[»
# Match a single digit 0..9 «\d+»
#    Between one and unlimited times, as many times as possible, giving back as needed (greedy) «+»
# Match the character “>” literally «>»

subject = """this is a paragraph with<[1> in between</[1> and then there are cases ... where the<[99> number ranges from 1-100</[99>. 
and there are many other lines in the txt files
with<[3> such tags </[3>"""

result = pattern.sub("", subject)

print(result)

If you want to learn more about regex I recomend to read Regular Expressions Cookbook by Jan Goyvaerts and Steven Levithan.

The Answer 4

15 people think this answer is useful

The easiest way

import re

txt='this is a paragraph with<[1> in between</[1> and then there are cases ... where the<[99> number ranges from 1-100</[99>.  and there are many other lines in the txt files with<[3> such tags </[3>'

out = re.sub("(<[^>]+>)", '', txt)
print out

The Answer 5

11 people think this answer is useful

replace method of string objects does not accept regular expressions but only fixed strings (see documentation: http://docs.python.org/2/library/stdtypes.html#str.replace).

You have to use re module:

import re
newline= re.sub("<\/?\[[0-9]+>", "", line)

The Answer 6

3 people think this answer is useful

don’t have to use regular expression (for your sample string)

>>> s
'this is a paragraph with<[1> in between</[1> and then there are cases ... where the<[99> number ranges from 1-100</[99>. \nand there are many other lines in the txt files\nwith<[3> such tags </[3>\n'

>>> for w in s.split(">"):
...   if "<" in w:
...      print w.split("<")[0]
...
this is a paragraph with
 in between
 and then there are cases ... where the
 number ranges from 1-100
.
and there are many other lines in the txt files
with
 such tags

The Answer 7

3 people think this answer is useful
import os, sys, re, glob

pattern = re.compile(r"\<\[\d\>")
replacementStringMatchesPattern = "<[1>"

for infile in glob.glob(os.path.join(os.getcwd(), '*.txt')):
   for line in reader: 
      retline =  pattern.sub(replacementStringMatchesPattern, "", line)         
      sys.stdout.write(retline)
      print (retline)

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