compilation – How can I check the syntax of Python script without executing it?

The Question :

389 people think this question is useful

I used to use perl -c programfile to check the syntax of a Perl program and then exit without executing it. Is there an equivalent way to do this for a Python script?

The Question Comments :

The Answer 1

626 people think this answer is useful

You can check the syntax by compiling it:

python -m py_compile script.py

The Answer 2

63 people think this answer is useful

You can use these tools:

The Answer 3

22 people think this answer is useful
import sys
filename = sys.argv[1]
source = open(filename, 'r').read() + '\n'
compile(source, filename, 'exec')

Save this as checker.py and run python checker.py yourpyfile.py.

The Answer 4

13 people think this answer is useful

Here’s another solution, using the ast module:

python -c "import ast; ast.parse(open('programfile').read())"

To do it cleanly from within a Python script:

import ast, traceback

filename = 'programfile'
with open(filename) as f:
    source = f.read()
valid = True
try:
    ast.parse(source)
except SyntaxError:
    valid = False
    traceback.print_exc()  # Remove to silence any errros
print(valid)

The Answer 5

2 people think this answer is useful

Perhaps useful online checker PEP8 : http://pep8online.com/

The Answer 6

2 people think this answer is useful

Pyflakes does what you ask, it just checks the syntax. From the docs:

Pyflakes makes a simple promise: it will never complain about style, and it will try very, very hard to never emit false positives.

Pyflakes is also faster than Pylint or Pychecker. This is largely because Pyflakes only examines the syntax tree of each file individually.

To install and use:

$ pip install pyflakes
$ pyflakes yourPyFile.py

The Answer 7

0 people think this answer is useful

for some reason ( I am a py newbie … ) the -m call did not work …

so here is a bash wrapper func …

# ---------------------------------------------------------
# check the python synax for all the *.py files under the
# <<product_version_dir/sfw/python
# ---------------------------------------------------------
doCheckPythonSyntax(){

    doLog "DEBUG START doCheckPythonSyntax"

    test -z "$sleep_interval" || sleep "$sleep_interval"
    cd $product_version_dir/sfw/python
    # python3 -m compileall "$product_version_dir/sfw/python"

    # foreach *.py file ...
    while read -r f ; do \

        py_name_ext=$(basename $f)
        py_name=${py_name_ext%.*}

        doLog "python3 -c \"import $py_name\""
        # doLog "python3 -m py_compile $f"

        python3 -c "import $py_name"
        # python3 -m py_compile "$f"
        test $! -ne 0 &amp;&amp; sleep 5

    done < <(find "$product_version_dir/sfw/python" -type f -name "*.py")

    doLog "DEBUG STOP  doCheckPythonSyntax"
}
# eof func doCheckPythonSyntax

The Answer 8

0 people think this answer is useful

Thanks to the above answers @Rosh Oxymoron. I improved the script to scan all files in a dir that are python files. So for us lazy folks just give it the directory and it will scan all the files in that directory that are python.

import sys
import glob, os

os.chdir(sys.argv[1])
for file in glob.glob("*.py"):
    source = open(file, 'r').read() + '\n'
    compile(source, file, 'exec')

Save this as checker.py and run python checker.py ~/YOURDirectoryTOCHECK

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