c – What does the constant 0.0039215689 represent?

The Question :

310 people think this question is useful

I keep seeing this constant pop up in various graphics header files


It seems to have something to do with color maybe?

Here is the first hit on Google:

    Gfx.FogColor.R = _SHIFTR(w1, 24, 8) * 0.0039215689f;
    Gfx.FogColor.G = _SHIFTR(w1, 16, 8) * 0.0039215689f;
    Gfx.FogColor.B = _SHIFTR(w1, 8, 8) * 0.0039215689f;
    Gfx.FogColor.A = _SHIFTR(w1, 0, 8) * 0.0039215689f;

    Gfx.BlendColor.R = _SHIFTR(w1, 24, 8) * 0.0039215689f;
    Gfx.BlendColor.G = _SHIFTR(w1, 16, 8) * 0.0039215689f;
    Gfx.BlendColor.B = _SHIFTR(w1, 8, 8) * 0.0039215689f;
    Gfx.BlendColor.A = _SHIFTR(w1, 0, 8) * 0.0039215689f;

    if(OpenGL.Ext_FragmentProgram && (System.Options & BRDP_COMBINER)) {
        glProgramEnvParameter4fARB(GL_FRAGMENT_PROGRAM_ARB, 2, Gfx.BlendColor.R, Gfx.BlendColor.G, Gfx.BlendColor.B, Gfx.BlendColor.A);

//...more like this

What does this number represent? Why does no one seem to declare it as a const?

I couldn’t find anything on Google that explained it.

The Question Comments :
  • Is there any reason the source code would write this instead of (1.f/255) ?
  • Mmmm…if only there were some way to avoid magic numbers….
  • 1/255 == 0.00(3921568627450980) — parens mean repetition.
  • With your next magic number, try asking Wolfram Alpha
  • whatever the reason, using a magic number without documenting its purpose is very uncool

The Answer 1

383 people think this answer is useful

0.0039215689 is approximately equal to 1/255.

Seeing that this is OpenGL, performance is probably important. So it’s probably safe to guess that this was done for performance reasons.

Multiplying by the reciprocal is faster than repeatedly dividing by 255.

Side Note:

If you’re wondering why such a micro-optimization isn’t left to the compiler, it’s because it is an unsafe floating-point optimization. In other words:

x / 255  !=  x * (1. / 255)

due to floating-point round-off errors.

So while modern compilers may be smart enough to do this optimization, they are not allowed to do it unless you explicitly tell them to via a compiler flag.

Related: Why doesn’t GCC optimize a*a*a*a*a*a to (a*a*a)*(a*a*a)?

The Answer 2

79 people think this answer is useful

This multiplication by 0.0039215689f converts an integer valued color intensity in the range 0 to 255 to a real valued color intensity in the range 0 to 1.

As Ilmari Karonen points out, even if this is an optimisation it’s a rather badly expressed one. It would be so much clearer to multiply by (1.0f/255).

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